Cataloging the Shaker Museum | Mount Lebanon Stoneware Collection 

In the fall of 2017, Coco Raymond, a student at Bard College at Simon’s Rock, interned at Shaker Museum | Mount Lebanon. Ms. Raymond’s interest in ceramics and learning about museum work made her a natural fit for a project cataloging the Museum’s collection of commercially made stoneware owned and used by the Mount Lebanon Shakers. Ms. Raymond wrote this blog. 

Stoneware Vessels in the Attic of a Building at Mount Lebanon, NY, ca. 1930s

Stoneware Vessels in the Attic of a Building at Mount Lebanon, NY, ca. 1930s, Shaker Museum | Mount Lebanon: 1957.8564.1. This photograph was made as part of the New York State Art Project in the 1930s. These photographs eventually became part of the Historic American Buildings Survey.

The Shakers owned many ceramic vessels. At the Mount Lebanon community, stoneware jugs and crocks were generally made at local commercial potteries – and there were plenty of those in the area. The only clay products the Shakers at Mount Lebanon made themselves were smoking pipes and pipes for draining wetland. Shaker Museum | Mount Lebanon holds a collection of sixty pieces of stoneware – most of which were used at Mount Lebanon.

The Shakers had considerable need for these vessels. Jugs, holding from one to ten gallons of liquid, were used to store and sell medicinal extracts and distilled liquids such as witch hazel. Crocks were traditionally used for putting up pickles and preserving other foodstuffs. Large jugs fitted with bung holes at the bottom were used as water coolers that could be taken to the brothers working in the fields.

Stoneware Crock, Church Family, Mount Lebanon, NY, ca. 1850,

Stoneware Crock, Church Family, Mount Lebanon, NY, ca. 1850, Shaker Museum | Mount Lebanon: 1950.702.1. John Mulligan, photographer.  This three gallon crock stored Juglans cinerea, that is, an extract from the butternut tree used as both a dyestuff for coloring cloth or as a medicine with a mild cathartic effect.

Most of the vessels in the Museum’s collection were produced between the 1840s and the 1860s. The New York stoneware industry was at its peak from 1830 to 1890. The New England ceramic industry began on a smaller scale in the late 17th century with the production of redware, a type of red stoneware commercialized in America in 1625. The golden age of New England and New York pottery was mostly in the 19th century, but lasted until 1943 when  Hilfinger Pottery in Fort Edward, New York closed. The work produced in New York and New England during this period was stylistically influenced by German Pennsylvanian potters and English potters. Unlike redware, the materials used to make stoneware are not naturally occurring in New England, so New England potteries had to transport clays from New Jersey and New York. Stoneware was preferred over earthenware due to fears of poisoning from lead glazes commonly used on earthenware vessels. Almost all of the stoneware jugs owned by the Shakers feature a salt glaze, which was popular due to its resistance to acidic foods and the natural sealant the salt glaze provides.

Stoneware Jug, Church Family, Mount Lebanon, NY, 1861-1885

Stoneware Jug, Church Family, Mount Lebanon, NY, 1861-1885, Shaker Museum | Mount Lebanon: 1950.714.1. John Mulligan, photographer. This jug was made by Satterlee & Mory at Fort Edward, NY. It contained Chelidonium majus, or greater celandine, a preparation used for liver diseases and general digestive problems.

Many early stoneware vessels had an inner coating of ochre, but this material fell out of use after the discovery of a material called Albany slip found in the Hudson River in the early 1800s. This rich dark brown slip was used to coat the inside of almost all of the jugs, crocks, and coolers in the Museum’s collection. The jugs are decorated with slip-trailed or slip painted cobalt motifs, most commonly in the shape of flowers, plants, or occasionally, birds. Several feature tornado-like zig-zags or spirals. Some of the designs have bubbled and chipped as an excess of cobalt slip will react with the salt glaze layered on top of it. Most of the pieces lack variation in the relatively simple shape of the vessel’s body, indicating a focus on functionality over aesthetics. The jugs are generally straight with a slight swell at the chest before the shape reduces to a narrow neck. The coolers are visually similar to the jugs with the addition of a bung at the base and much taller and thicker handles to support the vessel’s considerable weight. The crocks are less curvy, with a thick lip and two lug handles on the sides. Their lids are most often plain save for the occasional layer of Albany slip or glaze. A few feature unusually ornate reliefs of flowers or grapes, most likely from a press mold. Almost all of the pieces feature a maker’s stamp, which was pressed into the wet body with an overlay of cobalt slip.

Sources:

“American Pottery History.” n.d. Accessed December 15, 2017. http://www.corzilius.org/Narratives/PotteryInAmerica.htm.

“Antique Redware | Pottery & Porcelain Price Guide | Antiques & Collectibles Price Guide.” n.d. Accessed December 15, 2017. https://www.kovels.com/price-guide/pottery-porcelain-price-guide/redware.html.

“Exraordinary [sic] Shaker Herbalist Account Book & Diary.” n.d. M & S Rare Books. Accessed December 15, 2017. http://www.msrarebooks.com/4DCGI/w_BookDetailS/20951.

Grant, Jerry. “Jugs and Pots.” Shaker Museum | Mount Lebanon (blog). October 5, 2016. https://shakerml.wordpress.com/2016/10/05/jugs-and-pots/. Accessed December 15, 2017.

Mansberger, Floyd. “Nineteenth Century Pottery Production In Illinois.” n.d. Accessed December 15, 2017. http://illinoisarchaeology.com/ceramics/Roberts%20Volume%20Paper.pdf.

Ketchum, William C., Jr. Potters and Potteries of New York State, 1650-1900. Second edition. New York: Syracuse University Press, 1987.

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Relief from asthma that risks death in a “maniacal delirium”

Mount Lebanon’s Second Family was at one time probably the community’s largest family, comprised of not only the home farm – those buildings and properties now referred to as the Second Family – but also the South Farm, the West Farm, and the East Family. In the years prior to the Civil War, the Mount Lebanon Second Family presented a seemingly strong financial outlook. They had an adequate farming program to support the family and, as the chair business at the South Farm was under their jurisdiction, a successful industrial one as well. During the late-1850s and early 1860s the South Farm became the South Family and as it assumed control of its own finances, the Second Family appears to have suffered from losing its industrial component. The West Farm failed to thrive and its residents were assimilated into other families and in 1872 the East Family’s Elder and financial manager, Edward Chase, absconded, leaving the Shakers as much as $25,000 dollars (more than half a million in today’s dollars) in unexpected debt to people in the outside world. The East Family was broken up by 1875. To add further stress, by the early 1880s the Second Family seed business was not keeping up with competition from seed merchants in the outside world.  In consideration of all of these changes, the Lebanon Ministry tried to identify businesses that would help the Family regain its financial footing.  

Shaker Asthma Cure Bottle and Shipping Box with Sample Package

Shaker Asthma Cure Bottle and Shipping Box with Sample Package of the Same, Second Family, Mount Lebanon, NY, ca. 1880s-1890s, Shaker Museum } Mount Lebanon: 1957.9330.1 (Shipping Container); 1957.9330.3 (Sales Bottle with Pills); 1999.1.161a (Sample Shipping Box); 1999.1.161b (Sample Bottle with Pills).

In March 1880, apparently at the request of Church Family Trustee Brother Benjamin Gates, Dr. Lyman Brown, a pharmacist from New York City, came to Mount Lebanon to “arrange for putting up some powders at the Second Family.” The Shakers had become involved with Brown as they attempted to rebuild following a catastrophic fire in 1875.  Brown contracted with the Shakers to use their well-disciplined workforce to manufacture, bottle, label, and ship his medicines. The arrangement was apparently lucrative for both. It was the hope of the Lebanon Ministry that what Brown had done for the Church Family could also be done for the Second Family. Once it appeared that involvement in the medicine business could be accomplished at both Families, more projects were taken on. On October 26, 1882, the Ministry recorded in their journal : “The Second Family are making an effort to start a medicine cure of the Asthma, to be made into sugar coated pillets, put up in little bottles & sent out in little wooden cases, by mail.” 

fig 2

Label, “The Shaker Asthma Cure,” Second Family, Mount Lebanon, NY, ca. 1883, Shaker Museum | Mount Lebanon, 1998.4.35.

M. Stephen Miller, in his book From Shaker Lands and Shaker Hands: A Survey of Shaker Industries (University Press of New England, 2007) provides the medical background on asthma: “Four distinct, although overlapping answers have endured side by side [for the causes of asthma] … a primary disorder of the lungs, an allergic condition, a disease associated with environmental irritants, and a disease linked to emotional distress.” Although there is not a “cure” for asthma, there are treatments that greatly relieve the constriction of the bronchi, allowing those with the disease to breathe better. Miller suggests that although the formula for the “pillets” has not been unearthed in Shaker records the testimonials suggest that those who tried the Shakers’ medicine slept better – insomnia being a major complaint of those with asthma. While the pills may have contained a sedative that helped with sleep, it is also possible the Shakers went out on a rather dangerous limb and offered a “cure” that contained Datura Stramonium – more commonly known at that time as Thorn Apple.

Label, “Thorn Apple, Datura Stramonium, Church Family, Mount Lebanon, NY

Label, “Thorn Apple, Datura Stramonium, Church Family, Mount Lebanon, NY, ca. 1850s, Shaker Museum | Mount Lebanon: 2008.21389.1

According to Mrs. M. Grieve, author of the online botanical.com, the extract of thorn apple can be given in the form of a pill to “allay cough in spasmodic bronchial asthma.” In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, thorn apple leaves were smoked in a pipe or as a cigarette to relieve the symptoms of asthma, but the smoke was also an irritant, making the pill form more attractive.

fig 3

Package Insert, “The following rules should be strictly observed in connection with the Shaker Asthma Cure,” Second Family, Mount Lebanon, NY, ca. 1883, Shaker Museum | Mount Lebanon: 1957.9332.1.

The active agent in thorn apple is atropine – still one of the preferred substances used in asthma treatment.  The Shakers at Mount Lebanon had been preparing an extract of thorn apple for sale since the mid-1830s. If the Shakers did indeed use thorn apple extract in their “asthma cure” they were taking a risk in doing so, for as recorded in Amy Bess Miller’s Shaker Herbs: A History and a Compendium (Clarkson M. Potter, 1976), “In large doses it is an energetic narcotic poison. Its victims suffer the most intense agonies and die in maniacal delirium.”  

Again, we find ourselves in a position where we could use some help. Many of these pills remain and are available to a qualified chemist who can analyze the compound.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flagroot candy not so sweet for its maker

flag root box  21901.1

Flag Root Box, Canterbury, NH, c. 1950. 200?.21901.1

All of us here at Shaker Museum | Mount Lebanon suffer under the distinct disadvantage of never having tasted candied flag root, so can only preface this discussion with a comment Sister Marie Burgess (1920-2001), who  worked in the Shakers’ confectionery business for thirty years, made one day to our Director of Collections and Research in the kitchen at Sabbathday Lake, Maine. She said one of her least favorite jobs while a Shaker was making candied flag and that after all the disagreeable work she no longer cared for the taste of it either!

As the population of Shaker brothers declined in the last half of the nineteenth century, it fell to the sisters to develop and manufacture marketable new products to bolster the income for their families. The Shaker sisters at Canterbury and other Shaker communities prepared a variety of foodstuffs for sale: among them, candied flag root.
calamus-root-whole-large

Dried sweet flag root

Sweet flag (acorus calamus), often called calamus, has a rhizomatic root that would look familiar to anyone who has divided irises. Both the leaves and the roots are aromatic, and the dried root has been used in place of ginger, nutmeg, and cinnamon. Its medicinal properties have been utilized in many traditions, including Ayureveda and among some American Indian tribes, including the Penobscot. It’s believed to carry sedative and digestive benefits, and has been used as an hallucinogen as well.

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Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885, Gera, Germany

Sweet flag was harvested, cleaned, thinly sliced, boiled several times, and candied with crystals of sugar. The slicing, clearly the most tedious part of the process, was made easier by a special rotary cutter powered by an old Boston brand sewing machine. The sewing machine, given to Eldress B. King by her grandmother, was converted to a flag root cutter by the Canterbury brothers. They removed the part of the sewing machine that moved the sewing needle up and down and re-purposed the spinning motion produced by the foot treadle to power an attached four-bladed cutting head that thinly sliced the flag root. The tin-covered trough helped guide the root into the cutters and the sliced pieces were collected in a tin container at the front of the machine.The candied flag was packaged in boxes and sold in Shaker gift shops. It continued to be made at SabbathDay Lake well into the 1950s.

flag root cutter noc1953.6582.1-2 (fredericks)

Flag Root Cutter, Boston Sewing Machine, Canterbury, NH, c. 1873. 1953.6582.1